Torturing the self

Tapa [Attantapa] (AN 4.198)

Bhikkhus, these four persons are evident in the world. What four?

Here, bhikkhus, a certain person falls to the method of torturing the self. Another falls to the method of torturing others. Another person falls to the method of torturing the self and others And yet another person falls to the method of neither torturing the self nor others. He is here and now satisfied, extinguished, cooled, experiences a pleasantness like Brahma and abides,

Bhikkhus, who is the person that falls to the method of torturing the self? .

Here, bhikkhus, a certain person goes without clothes, licks the hand without manners, does not enter a house, does not wait, does not accept, what is brought, what is specially prepared or an invitation. Does not accept from the mouth of a pot, a vessel, over a goat, over a stick, over a broom, from where two are eating, from a woman bearing child, from woman giving suck, from a woman gone with a man, from a soiled woman, from a place where she is supported. or from a place where flies abound. Does not accept fish, meat, intoxicating and brewed drinks. Is supported with one morsel in one house, two morsels in two houses, ... re ... with seven morsels in seven houses. Is supported on what is given by one, by two, ... re ... by seven. Is supportd on what is brought by one, by two ... re ... by seven. He abides on these arranged meals for two weeks. Then he is supported on vegetables, millets, raw rice, dark rice, broken rice, red rice powder, foam of boiling rice, flour of oil seeds, grass, cow dung, forest roots, leaves and fruits or whatever is picked.

He wears clothes made of hemp, garments of coarse cloth interwoven with hemp, miserable garments, garments made of the bark of trees, antelope hide, strips of antelope hide, strips of wood and owls' wings, garments made of grass, blankets made of head hair and blankets made of horses' tail. He engages in pulling out hair of head and beard, keeps standing rejecting seats, spends the time squatting, pricks the body with thorns and sleeps on a bed of thorns. Ascends into water up to three times by the evening. Thus he gives the body various kinds of torture. Bhikkhus, this person falls to the method of torturing the self.

Bhikkhus, which person tortures others?

Here, bhikkhus, a certain person is cruel, a slaughterer of lambs, pigs, birds, animals,and destroyer of fish, a robber, a highwayman, a keeper of a prison or he does some other kind of cruel activity. Bhikkhus, this person tortures others.

Bhikkhus, which person tortures himself and others?

Here, bhikkhus, a certain person is either a head anointed warrior king or a Brahmin householder. He builds a new hall to the east of the city, shaves head and beard and wearing a rough skin garment anoints ghee on himself and pricking the horn of a deer on his back` enters the new hall with the queen consort and the advisory Brahmin. In the enclosure he lies down on a prepared greenery. Then the king drinks the milk out of one of the nipples of a young healthy cow. The queen drinks from another nipple and from the third the advisory Brahmin drinks. Milk from the fourth nipple is burnt in the sacrificial fire. The rest is left for the calf. Then he says, kill this amount of bulls, this amount of young calves, this amount of young cows, this amount of goats, this amount of lambs, this amount of horses, for the sacrifice. Cut this amount of trees for the sacrificial posts, clean this amount of shrubs for easy movement. The servants, messengers and workmen do their activities crying with tearful faces. Bhikkhus, such a person tortures himself and others.

Bhikkhus, which person falls to the method of neither torturing the self nor others, is here and now satisfied, extinguished, cooled, experiences a plesantness like Brahma and abides?

Here, bhikkhus, the Thus Gone One worthy and rightfully enlightened endowed with knowledge and conduct, well gone, knower of the worlds, the incomparable tamer of those to be tamed, Teacher of gods and men, enlightened and blessed is born in the world. He declares the Teaching to the world together with gods, Māra, Brahma and the community of recluses and Brahmins by himself known and realized. That Teaching is good at the beginning, in the middle and at the end, full of meaning even in the letters and words and declaring the complete and pure holy life. A householder or the son of a householder, born to a certain family hears that Teaching and gains faith.

Then he reflects, life in the household is troublesome, it is full of impurities, going forth is like open space. It is not easy to lead the holy life complete and pure, while living in a household. What if I shave head and beard wear yellow clothes and go forth. In the meantime he gives up a small mass of wealth or a great mass of wealth, a small circle of relations or a large circle of relations and shaving head and beard and wearing yellow clothes he goes forth and becomes homeless.

Gone forth thus he trains in the precepts, abstains from destroying living things, gives up punishing, throwing away weapons, ashamed and with aroused compassion, he abides with compassion for all living things. Giving up taking the not given, likes the given and becomes pure not stealing. Giving up the unholy life, he leads a holy life abstaining from low sexual intercourse. Giving up telling lies, he tells the real and the truth and becomes trustworthy in the world. Giving up slandering, does not tell there, what he has heard here, to split these. Does not tell here, what he had heard there, to split those. Thus speaks to join the broken and make firm those joined. Fond of unity, talks words for unity. Giving up rough words talks politely and pleasantly, words that go straight into the heart. Words accepted by all the populace. Giving up frivolous talk, he talks at the right time, the truth, the meaningful, the Teaching and the Discipline, limited, appropriate words that could be treasured.

He refrains from destroying seed plants and vegetable plants. Refraining from food at night takes one meal a day. Refrains from dancing, music and musical shows. Refrains from decorating the self with flowers, scents, ointments. Gives up high and stately beds. Refrains from accepting gold, silver and money. Does not accept raw grains, raw flesh, women, girls, slaves women or men, goats and sheep, cocks and pigs, elephants, cattle, horses and mares. Does not accept fields or lands. Abstains from conveying messages, buying and selling, dealing matters unfairly in measuring and weighing. Does not take bribes, cheat or do insincere things. Does not cut kill or bind and does not collect morsel food violently and in roguish ways.

Satisfied with robes for the body and morsel food for the stomach, wherever he goes, he goes with all his things. Like a bird that flies away, in the same manner satisfied with robes and morsel food he goes with all his things. Endowd with these virtues of the noble ones he experiences internal happiness without faults.

Seeing a form does not take the sign or detail, to one abiding with the faculty of the eye uncontrolled, covetous unpleasant demeritorious thoughts would stream, he falls to the method of controlling the faculty of the eye. Hearing a sound, ... re ... Smelling a scent, ... re ... Tasting, ... re ... Experiencing a touch, ... re ... Cognizing an idea, does not take the sign or detail, to one abiding with the faculty of the mind uncontrolled, covetous unpleasant demeritorious thoughts would stream, he falls to the method of controlling the faculty of the mind. Endowed with this control of the mental faculties, not touched by them he experiences an internal pleasantness.

Approaching and receding, looking on and about, he becomes mindfull and aware. Bending and stretching limbs, wearing the three robes and taking the bowl he becomes mindfull and aware. Enjoying, drinking, eating and tasting he becomes mindfull and aware. Urinating and excreting he becomes mindfull and aware.

Endowed with this mass of virtues of noble ones, control of the mental faculties of noble ones, this mindfull awareness of the noble ones he abides in a secluded dwelling. A forest, the root of a tree, a mountain grotto, a cemetery, a forest jungle, open space or a heap of straw. After the meal is over, returning from the alms round he sits in a cross legged position, keeping the body straight and mindfulness established in front of him. He abides dispelling covetoussness in the mind and cleans it from stains of coveting. Dispelling anger he abides with a mind free of anger. developing compassion to all living things he purifies the mind of anger. Mindfull and aware to dispel sloth and torpor he abides with the perception of light and cleans the mind from sloth and torpor. Dispelling restlessness and worry he abides with a mind internally appeased. Dispelling doubts abides putting an end to doubts about meritorious things that should be done and not done.

Dispelling these five hindrances and mindfullly making the finner defilements weak, secluded from sensual thoughts, ... re ... abides in the fourth higher state of mind.

The mind thus concentrated, made pure, freed from blemish, made workable and immoveable he directs for the destruction of desires. He knows as it really is, this is unpleasant, ... re ... this is the path leading to the cessation of unpleasantness. He knows as it really is, these are desires, this is the arising of desires, ... re ... this is the path leading to the cessation of desires. Knowing and seeing thus his mind seeks release from sensual desires, desires to be and desires on account of ignorance and knowledge arises of his release. He knows birth is destroyed, the holy life is lived to the end, what should be done is done, there is nothing more to wish.

Bhikkhus, this person falls to the method of neither torturing the self nor others, is here and now satisfied, extinguished, cooled, and abides experiencing a plesantness like Brahma.

Bhikkhus, these four persons are evident in the world.

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